The development of efficient methods and processes of heat dissipation for electronic components like chips, circuit boards, or systems is a significant challenge. Graphite can play an important role in thermal management applications due to its excellent thermal conductivity, which can significantly exceed the performance of aluminum and elastomers. Fig. 01 Thermal management requirements are increasing due to the technological …

A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen-containing fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. Fuel cells are used for primary and backup power for commercial, industrial and residential buildings and in remote or inaccessible areas. They are also used to power fuel cell vehicles, …

A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion Battery (LIB) is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge, and back when charging. They are one of the most popular types of rechargeable batteries for portable electronics, with high energy density, limited memory effect and low self-discharge. LIBs are also growing …

Lead-acid batteries (lead-carbon batteries) are the most widely used energy storage system in the world due to their proven safety, performance, low cost, and excellent recycling capabilities. It is expected that the future of automotive and energy storage technical requirements will be challenging for current level lead-acid batteries, meaning that their power and life performance requires improvements in order to …

Alkaline batteries are a type of primary battery dependent upon the reaction between zinc and manganese dioxide (Zn/MnO2 ). Compared with zinc-carbon batteries of the Leclanché cell or zinc chloride types, alkaline batteries have a higher energy density and longer shelf life, with the same voltage. Alkaline batteries are used in many household items such as MP3 players, digital cameras, …