Energy/Thermal Management

Advanced Lead-Acid Batteries

Lead-acid batteries (lead-carbon batteries) are the most widely used energy storage system in the world due to their proven safety, performance, low cost, and excellent recycling capabilities. It is expected that the future of automotive and energy storage technical requirements will be challenging for current level lead-acid batteries, meaning that their power and life performance requires improvements in order to meet future needs and maintain market positions.

Fig. 01

Carbon Enhanced Lead-Acid Battery for HRPSoC Applications

Advanced Lead-Acid Batteries

How can we help help address your challenges?


Conventional lead-acid batteries cannot meet the requirements for applications under High-Rate Partial-State-of-Charge (HRPSoC) operations, e.g., micro/mild HEV, due to premature failure.


Premature failure is mainly caused by rapid accumulation of lead sulfate (passive films) on the negative plate surfaces under HRPSoC conditions. Superior Graphite has developed products specifically to minimize the accumulation of lead sulfate on the negative plate surfaces, which significantly increases battery cycle life under HRPSoC conditions.


The battery’s internal resistivity increases during battery cycling.


We have developed FormulaBT™ products with excellent electrical conductivity to improve the internal resistance.

Benefits of FormulaBT™

FormulaBT™ is mixed with other active material additives (e.g. expander powders) and lead oxide powder to form negative plates to:

Minimize the accumulation of lead sulfate on the negative plate surfaces
Significantly improve cycle life under HRPSoC conditions
Increase charge acceptance
Maintain discharge power

Looking for the shortest path between your requirements and a viable, commercial solution?